Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men after skin cancer. Risk factors include age, family history, ethnicity, and diet.
Symptoms may include frequent need to urinate, incontinence, pain, blood in the urine, fatigue, and more. Prognosis and treatment depend on cancer staging. Watchful waiting, surgery, radiation, cryotherapy, and other management strategies are available.
Like all cancers, prostate cancer begins when a mass of cells has grown out of control and begins invading other tissues. Cells become cancerous due to the accumulation of defects, or mutations, in their DNA.
Most of the time, cells can detect and repair DNA damage. If a cell is severely damaged and cannot repair itself, it undergoes so-called programmed cell death or apoptosis. Cancer occurs when damaged cells grow, divide, and spread abnormally instead of self-destructing as they should.
Symptoms of prostate cancer are variable; some men have no symptoms until cancer develops over the years. However, signs that can develop include the following:
• Urinary frequency
• Difficulty starting or stopping urination
• An interrupted or weak or slow urinary stream
• Blood in urine or semen
• Discomfort (pain or burning sensation with urination or ejaculation)
• Intense pain in the low back, hips, or thighs, often present with aggressive or prostatic cancer spread to other organs
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